December 22, 2017 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/mac68k.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 7.1 and 7.1.1 Releases..............3 Features to be removed in a later release......................3 The NetBSD Foundation..........................................3 Sources of NetBSD..............................................3 NetBSD 7.1.1 Release Contents..................................3 NetBSD/mac68k subdirectory structure........................4 Binary distribution sets....................................5 NetBSD/mac68k System Requirements and Supported Devices........6 Supported models............................................7 Supported devices...........................................7 Unsupported models..........................................7 Known hardware issues with this release.....................8 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media...................8 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation..................9 Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method).................10 Running the sysinst installation program...................11 Introduction............................................11 Possible hardware-specific issues.......................11 General.................................................11 Quick install...........................................11 Booting NetBSD..........................................13 Preparing your hard disk................................14 Getting the distribution sets...........................14 Installation from CD-ROM................................14 Installation using FTP..................................14 Installation using NFS..................................15 Installation from Mac OS file systems...................15 Installation from an unmounted file system..............15 Installation from a local directory.....................15 Extracting the distribution sets........................15 Configure additional items..............................15 Finalizing your installation............................16 Installing the NetBSD System (Traditional Method).............16 Preparing the file system(s)...............................16 Installing the files.......................................17 Installation of base files.................................17 Booting the system.........................................18 Post installation steps.......................................19 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................21 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............22 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases.......22 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 6.x releases.......22 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................22 Administrivia.................................................23 Thanks go to..................................................23 We are........................................................24 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................30 The End.......................................................36

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 7.1.1 on the mac68k platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on many different different system architectures (ports) across a variety of distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 7.1.1 release contains complete binary releases for most of these system architectures, with preliminary support for the others included in source form. Please see the NetBSD website at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, NetBSD would not exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 7.1 and 7.1.1 Releases

NetBSD 7.1.1 is the first security/critical update of the NetBSD 7.1 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed important for security or stability reasons.

The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-7.1.1 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 7.1.1 release tree: http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-7.1.1/CHANGES-7.1.1

See http://www.NetBSD.org/releases/formal-7/NetBSD-7.1.1.html for some of the more noteworthy changes in this release.

Features to be removed in a later release

The following features are to be removed from NetBSD in the future:

The NetBSD Foundation

The NetBSD Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the NetBSD Project and owns the trademark of the word ``NetBSD''. It supports the design, development, and adoption of NetBSD worldwide. More information on the NetBSD Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/foundation/

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/

NetBSD 7.1.1 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 7.1.1 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-7.1.1/

CHANGES
Changes between the 6.0 and 7.0 releases.

CHANGES-7.0
Changes between the initial 7.0 branch and the final release of 7.0.

CHANGES-7.1
Changes between the final release of 7.0 and the final release of 7.1.

CHANGES-7.1.1
Changes between the final release of 7.1 and the final release of 7.1.1.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in previous NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes and notes about the release.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

images/
Images (ISO 9660 or USB) for installing NetBSD. Depending on your system, these may be bootable.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 7.1.1 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 7.1.1 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 7.1.1 kernel for all architectures as well as the config(1) utility.

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

MD5
MD5 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/mac68k subdirectory structure
The mac68k-specific portion of the NetBSD 7.1.1 release is found in the mac68k subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-7.1.1/mac68k/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A kernel containing code for everything supported in this release using the standard SCSI driver.
netbsd-GENERICSBC.gz
A kernel containing code for everything supported in this release using the SBC variant of the SCSI driver.
sets/
mac68k binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
instkernel/
mac68k boot and installation kernels; see installation section (Sysinst Method), below.
misc/
Miscellaneous mac68k installation utilities; see the Traditional method installation section below.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD mac68k binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 7.1.1 release for mac68k. The binary distribution sets can be found in the mac68k/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 7.1.1 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 7.1.1 mac68k base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional.

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/mac68k 7.1.1 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install either this distribution set or kern-GENERICSBC.

kern-GENERICSBC
This set contains a NetBSD/mac68k 7.1.1 GENERICSBC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install either this distribution set or kern-GENERIC.

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.

misc
This set includes the system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.

modules
This set includes kernel modules to add functionality to a running system.

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86 4.5.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.

xserver
The X server. This includes the Xmac68k monochrome server with man pages.

The mac68k binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xzpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system.

Kernels suitable for booting from an AppleShare server may be found in the mac68k/binary/kernels subdirectory of the NetBSD 7.1.1 distribution tree. These kernels are generally named something like netbsd-GENERIC.gz and can be booted as-is by the NetBSD/mac68k Booter utility, if desired. Please note that these kernels are simply gzipped and are not in tar archives.

The Mac OS based utilities necessary for installing and running NetBSD can be found in the mac68k/installation/misc subdirectory of the NetBSD 7.1.1 distribution tree. The important files in this directory are as follows:

Booter.sea.hqx
The NetBSD/mac68k Booter utility. This program is used to boot the NetBSD kernel from within Mac OS.
141 KB archived

Installer.sea.hqx
The NetBSD/mac68k Installer utility. This program is used to install the distribution sets onto your NetBSD partition(s). This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation; it is not used or required for an installation using the sysinst method.
147 KB archived

Mkfs.sea.hqx
The Mkfs utility. This program is used to format your chosen partitions so that they can be used with NetBSD. This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation; it is not used or required for an installation using the sysinst method.
76 KB archived

These files are all BinHexed, self-extracting archives. If you need them, the sources for these utilities are in the src subdirectory.

Note:
Each directory in the mac68k binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/mac68k System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/mac68k 7.1.1 runs on several of the older Macintosh computers. About 4 MB of RAM is sufficient to boot a stripped-down custom kernel, and a subset of the system can be squeezed onto a 40 MB hard disk with considerable creativity and persistence. However, 140 MB of disk should be considered a practical minimum, and to do anything more interesting than booting at least 8 MB of RAM and more disk space is recommended.

Please note that to install NetBSD/mac68k 7.1.1 using the sysinst method, your system must have a minimum of 6 MB of RAM and 60 MB of available disk space (i.e. not part of an in-use HFS partition).

Supported models
Supported devices

If your 68030 system is not listed above, it may be because of a problem with accessing onboard video, and it may still work with a serial console. Some of the known ones in this category:

If your 68LC040 system is not listed above, it is due to a problem with floating point emulation (FPE) for this type of processor. Machines in this category include:

Unsupported models
Known hardware issues with this release

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

There are currently two installation methods available for initial installation of NetBSD on Apple Macintosh 68000-based systems. Neither supports all installation media types at this time, so the one you select must be compatible with the media you have available on your system.

The Traditional method of installation is currently supported from the local Macintosh hard drive, from a CD-ROM, or from an AppleShare volume (however, you may upgrade a system from within NetBSD; see the Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System section for more details). If you are installing from a local hard drive, this means that you'll need at least enough room for the largest file that you will have to install.

If the install is being done from an AppleShare-mounted volume, the NetBSD/mac68k Installer must be in the same folder as the binary distribution sets.

Each distribution file is in raw archive format.

You will also need to collect the Mac OS installation tools from the mac68k/installation/misc subdirectory of the NetBSD7.1.1 distribution: Mkfs, NetBSD/mac68k Installer, and NetBSD/mac68k Booter. These three are in BinHexed, self-extracting archives as Mkfs.sea.hqx, Installer.sea.hqx, and Booter.sea.hqx, respectively. Extract them as you would any other Macintosh application.

Note:
The Booter is the only Mac OS application needed if the sysinst method of installation is used. The Traditional method of installation is deprecated and will be removed in a future release, and the Mkfs and Installer tools will be retired.

Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

No matter which installation method you use, there is some planning and preparation that is required beforehand. First and foremost, before beginning the installation process, make sure you have a reliable backup of any data on your hard disk that you wish to keep. Mistakes in partitioning your hard disk may lead to data loss.

NetBSD/mac68k uses the same disk mapping scheme as Mac OS: the Apple Disk Partition Map. This permits both systems to reside on the same disk, but introduces some installation problems unique to the Macintosh. There are very few, if any, reliable ways to reduce the size of an existing Mac OS disk partition, so partitioning a disk that currently contains Mac OS will almost always require a backup and reload step under Mac OS.

If you are using the sysinst method of installation you will be able to do most, if not all, of your disk partitioning during the install process. Partitioning the disk with sysinst will destroy any partition that is resized, deleted, converted, or designated for use by NetBSD. All space not planned to be used for Mac OS HFS partitions may be used by NetBSD and can be sub-divided by the sysinst process. This space may be defined within one or more existing disk partitions of any type, including HFS partitions that are no longer needed for Mac OS. However it is best if this space is physically contiguous on the disk as sysinst is not capable of merging non-contiguous disk partitions. If you are using the sysinst method and have sufficient disk space in one or more disk partitions you should skip forward to the section labeled Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method) in this document.

If you are using the Traditional method of installation you must use a disk partitioning utility to designate the different partitions you will want in your final NetBSD configuration. It is not necessary to create NetBSD (or AU/X) type partitions at this stage; the Mkfs utility can convert a partition of any type to one usable for NetBSD.

If disk partitioning is required because you've selected the Traditional method of installation, or because disk space needs to be freed up for use for the sysinst method of installation, follow the directions in the remainder of this section.

Find your favorite disk partitioning utility. Any formatter capable of partitioning a SCSI disk should work. Some of the ones that have been tried and seem to work are:

Apple's HD SC Setup is probably the easiest to use and the most commonly available. Instructions for patching HD SC Setup so that it will recognize non-Apple drives is available at:

http://www.euronet.nl/users/ernstoud/patch.html

First, you need to choose a drive on which to install NetBSD. Try to pick a drive with a low SCSI target number (or "SCSI ID"), especially if you are likely to add or remove drives to your SCSI chain in the future.

Note:
Be certain you have a reliable backup of any data that you may want to keep. Repartitioning your hard drive is an excellent way to destroy important data.

Second, decide how you want to set up your partitions. At minimum, you need a partition to hold the NetBSD installation (the root partition -- /) and a partition to serve as swap space. You may choose to use more than one partition to hold the installation. This allows you to separate the more vital portions of the file system (such as the kernel and the /etc directory) from the more volatile parts of the file system. Typical setups place the /usr directory on a separate partition from the root partition (/). Generally, / can be fairly small while the /usr partition should be fairly large. If you plan to use this machine as a server, you may also want a separate /var partition.

Once you have decided how to lay out your partitions, you need to calculate how much space to allocate to each partition. A minimal install of NetBSD (i.e. base.tgz, etc.tgz, and either kern-GENERIC.tgz or kern-GENERICSBC.tgz) requires about 140MB. A general rule of thumb for sizing the swap partition is to allocate twice as much swap space as you have real memory. Having your swap + real memory total at least 20 MB is also a good idea. Systems that will be heavily used or that are low on real memory should have more swap space allocated. Systems that will be only lightly used or have a very large amount of real memory can get away with less.

Keep in mind that NetBSD currently requires Mac OS in order to boot, so it is likely that you will want to keep at least a minimal install of Mac OS around on an HFS partition for this purpose. The size of this partition may vary depending on the size requirements for the version of Mac OS you are using. Of course, if you have Mac OS on another hard drive or can boot from a floppy, feel free to dedicate the entire drive to NetBSD.

Next, use your favorite partitioning utility to make partitions of the necessary sizes. You can use any type of partition, but partitions of type Apple_Free might save you some confusion in the future.

You are now set to install NetBSD on your hard drive.

Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method)

Running the sysinst installation program

  1. Introduction

    Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. Still, you should read this document and have it available during the installation process. This document tries to be a good guide to the installation, and as such, covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.

  2. Possible hardware-specific issues

  3. General

    The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while installing NetBSD on your hard disk. sysinst is a menu driven program that guides you through the installation process. Sometimes questions will be asked, and in many cases the default answer will be displayed in brackets (``[ ]'') after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch by running the /sysinst program from the command prompt. It is not necessary to reboot.

  4. Quick install

    First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD / DVD as the install media.

  5. Booting NetBSD

    Prior to attempting to boot NetBSD/mac68k verify that all the following are done:

    It is probably best to boot your machine with all extensions turned off [1]. You can do this by booting into Mac OS with the SHIFT key held down. You may have to restart your Macintosh for changes to take effect before proceeding.

    [1]
    If your version of the Memory control panel does not have a 32-bit addressing mode radio button, this means that your system is already 32-bit clean and is running in 32-bit addressing mode by default. If the Booter complains that your are not in 32-bit mode, it may be necessary for you to press the "Use Defaults" button in the Memory control panel to restore 32-bit addressing. You should probably reboot after doing so. If you have an older II-class system (including the II, IIx, IIcx, and SE/30), it is necessary to install Connectix's MODE32 to work around ROM issues which prevent you from enabling 32-bit addressing. Please see the NetBSD/mac68k FAQ at http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/mac68k/faq/ for more information.

    Double-click on the NetBSD/mac68k Booter icon to start the application. Select Booting from the Options menu. Select the Kernel Location to be from Mac OS with the filename corresponding to the name of the Installation Kernel you are using. Typically this will be netbsd-INSTALL.gz.

    If you haven't already put your Macintosh into B&W mode, select the Monitor Options from the Options menu and check the box for B&W mode.

    Try booting NetBSD by selecting Boot Now from the Options menu.

    If the system does not come up, send mail to port-mac68k@NetBSD.org describing your software, your hardware, and as complete a description of the problem as you can. As an alternative, try using the Traditional method of installation described in the next section.

  6. Preparing your hard disk

    You are now at the point of no return. Nothing has been written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified. If you are sure you want to proceed, select yes.

    The install program will now label your disk and create the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.

  7. Getting the distribution sets

    The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets that come in the form of gzipped tar files. At this point, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first transfer the sets to your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.

    For all these methods, the first step is to make the sets available for extraction. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of the methods. After reading about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.

  8. Installation from CD-ROM

    When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify the device name for your CD-ROM drive (usually cd0) and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.

    sysinst will then check that the files are actually present in the specified location and proceed to the extraction of the sets.

  9. Installation using FTP

    To install using ftp, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will help you with this, asking if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.

    sysinst will then transfer the set files from the remote site to your hard disk.

  10. Installation using NFS

    To install using NFS, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e., correctly exported to your machine.

    If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.

  11. Installation from Mac OS file systems

    NetBSD/mac68k does not currently have in-kernel support for Mac OS HFS/HFS+ or AppleShare filesystems. sysinst therefore can not access the file sets if they are on these filesystems.

  12. Installation from an unmounted file system

    In order to install from a local file system, you will need to specify the device that the file system resides on (for example wd1e), the type of the file system, and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located. sysinst will then check if it can indeed access the sets at that location.

  13. Installation from a local directory

    This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.

  14. Extracting the distribution sets

    A progress bar will be displayed while the distribution sets are being extracted.

    After all the files have been extracted, the device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files.

  15. Configure additional items

    The next menu will allow you to select a number of additional items to configure, including the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC, the root user's shell, and the initial root password.

    You can also enable installation of binary packages, which installs the pkgin(1) tool for managing binary packages for third-party software. This will feel familiar to users of package tools such as apt-get or yum. If you prefer to install third-party software from source, you can install the pkgsrc(7) tree.

    Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8), or mdnsd(8).

  16. Finalizing your installation

    Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD 7.1.1. You can now reboot the machine and boot NetBSD from hard disk.


Installing the NetBSD System (Traditional Method)

The Traditional method of installation can be broken down into three basic steps:

Preparing the file system(s)
Double-click on the Mkfs application icon to start it up. It will ask you for the SCSI-ID (SCSI target number) of the drive that you are installing NetBSD on. Once this is selected, it will present a list of the partitions on that disk. You must first convert the partitions to a type which NetBSD can understand. Select each partition on which you wish to build a file system and click on the Change button. If you are placing the entire installation on a single partition, select the NetBSD Root&Usr radio button. If you are using multiple partitions, select NetBSD Root for the root partition (/) and NetBSD Usr for all the other partitions. You should select NetBSD Swap for the swap partition.

When you have finished converting each partition, select each partition and click on the Format button. You will now be asked for a bunch of parameters for the hard drive and the file system. Usually, you can just take the defaults. If you are installing onto removable media (e.g. a Zip, Jaz, or Syquest), please see the FAQ. Note that although this dialog only has the OK button, you are not committed, yet. Once you get the values you want, press the OK button. A dialog will be presented at this point with two options: Format and Cancel. If you choose Cancel, nothing will be written to your drive. If you choose Format, the program will proceed to make a file system.

Mkfs is not a well-behaved Macintosh application. It will not allow any other tasks to run while it does (cooperative multitasking at its best). When it's finished, the program will put up a dialog to ask if you have scanned the output for any error messages. Usually there won't have been any errors, but do scan the output to make sure. Simply click on the I Read It button and the program will quit.

Repeat as necessary for any extra partitions that you wish to make file systems on. Note that you do not need a file system on your swap partition.

When you are finished, click on the Done button and choose Quit from the File menu to exit Mkfs.

Installing the files
Before using the Installer, it is probably a good idea to increase its memory allocation. Select the Installer icon by clicking on it and choose Get Info from the File menu. Increase both the Minimum and Preferred sizes to as much as you can spare.

Double-click on the Installer icon to start it up. The Installer will present the same SCSI-ID menu that Mkfs did. Select the same SCSI-ID (SCSI target number) that you did for Mkfs - i.e., the one you are installing NetBSD on.

If you are installing onto a single root partition (/), proceed to the Installation of base files section, below.

If you have not created file systems for / (root), usr, and any other file systems, go back to Preparing the file system(s) above.

When you started the Installer, it mounted your root partition (/). Just before it printed

       Mounting partition 'A' as /

it printed lines like:


       sd1 at scsi ID 5

This means that the device for SCSI target 5 ("SCSI ID 5") is sd1. The partitions are signified by a trailing letter. For instance, sd1a would be the root partition (/) of the second SCSI disk in the chain, and sd0g would be the first Usr partition on the first SCSI disk.

You will need to know the proper device to mount the remaining partition(s) by hand:

  1. Select Build Devices from the File menu.

  2. Select Mini Shell from the File menu.

  3. You can use the disklabel command to get a listing of the available partitions and their types and sizes.

  4. Create the directory mount point(s) with the command:


           # mkdir path

    E.g. for the /usr partition type:


           # mkdir /usr

  5. Mount the file systems you wish with the command:


           # mount device path
    For example, if you wish to mount a /usr partition from the first SCSI disk sd0, on /usr, you would type:


           # mount /dev/sd0g /usr

  6. Type
           # fstab force
    to create a proper /etc/fstab file.

  7. Type quit after you have mounted all the file systems.
Installation of base files
Select the Install menu item from the File menu and install base.tgz, etc.tgz, either kern-GENERIC.tgz or kern-GENERICSBC.tgz, and any other sets you wish to install at this time (see the NetBSD 7.1.1 Release Contents for information about what's in each set). The Installer will print out the filename of each file as it is installed, and will take quite some time to install everything (the base package alone can take over two hours on a slow hard drive).

As is the case with Mkfs, this is not a particularly well-behaved Macintosh application and the machine will be completely tied up while the installation takes place.

At some point after installing the base set, select the Build Devices option from the File menu if you have not already done so. This will create a bunch of device nodes for you and will create your initial /etc/fstab. The Installer program also has an option to give you a mini-shell. Do not use this unless you are sure know what you are doing.

When you are finished installing all of the sets you wish to install, exit the Installer by choosing Quit from the File menu.

Booting the system
Prior to attempting to boot NetBSD/mac68k, please verify that all of the following are true:

  1. 32-bit addressing is enabled [2] in the Memory control panel;

  2. All forms of virtual memory are disabled (the Memory control panel, RAM Doubler, or other software-based memory enhancement products); and

  3. Your system is in B&W mode (1-bit color or grayscale) as shown by the Monitors control panel. You may choose to have the Booter do this for you automatically by selecting the appropriate check box and radio button in the Monitors dialog on the Options menu.

It is probably best to boot your machine with all extensions turned off [2]. You can do this by booting into Mac OS with the SHIFT key held down. You may have to restart your Macintosh for changes to take effect before proceeding.

[2]
If your version of the Memory control panel does not have a 32-bit addressing mode radio button, this means that your system is already 32-bit clean and is running in 32-bit addressing mode by default. If the Booter complains that you are not in 32-bit mode, it may be necessary for you to press the Use Defaults button in the Memory control panel to restore 32-bit addressing. You should probably reboot after doing so. If you have an older II-class system (including the II, IIx, IIcx, and SE/30), it is necessary to install Connectix's MODE32 to work around ROM issues which prevent you from enabling 32-bit addressing. Please see the NetBSD/mac68k FAQ at http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/mac68k/faq/ for more information.

Double-click on the NetBSD/mac68k Booter icon to start the application. Select Booting from the Options menu. Check that all of the items in the resulting dialog look sane - especially the SCSI target number. If not, correct them to your preference (the SCSI target number, or "SCSI ID", should be the only thing you need to change). When you are satisfied with your choices, try booting NetBSD by selecting Boot Now from the Options menu.

If you wish to save your preferences, choose Save Options from the File menu before Booting (your preferences will not be saved if you forget to do this).

If the system does not come up, send mail to port-mac68k@NetBSD.org describing your software, your hardware, and as complete a description of the problem as you can.

If the system does come up, congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD7.1.1.

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.

  1. Before all else, read postinstall(8).

  2. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst normally will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    When you have finished editing /etc/rc.conf, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that may need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute. You may also need to add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, where your on-board, NuBus or PDS interface may be ae0, mc0 or sn0. For example:


           ifconfig_sn0="inet 192.0.2.123 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_sn0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information.

    Instead of manually configuring networking, DHCP can be used by setting dhcpcd=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

  3. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. If you didn't set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

  4. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  5. The X Window System

    If you installed the X Window System, you may want to read the chapter about X in the NetBSD Guide: http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html

    [Color_X]
    Some systems are capable of supporting a color X Server in either thousands or millions of colors. The mac68k port does not support resolution switching at this time. If your system is capable of running the color X Server it can be installed at this point and the Booter options can be modified to match the resolution depth.

  6. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages the software may depend upon.

    - More information on the package system is available at http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/software/packages.html

    - A list of available packages suitable for browsing is at ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/README.html

    - Precompiled binaries can be found at ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/ usually in the mac68k/7.1.1/All subdir. If you installed pkgin(1) in the sysinst post-installation configuration menu, you can use it to automatically install binary packages over the network. Assuming that /usr/pkg/etc/pkgin/repositories.conf is correctly configured, you can install them with the following commands:

    # pkgin install tcsh
    # pkgin install bash
    # pkgin install perl
    # pkgin install apache
    # pkgin install kde
    # pkgin install firefox
    ...
    

    Note:
    Some mirror sites don't mirror the /pub/pkgsrc directory.

    The above commands will install the Tenex-csh and Bourne Again shells, the Perl programming language, Apache web server, KDE desktop environment and the Firefox web browser as well as all the packages they depend on.

    - If you did not install it from the sysinst post-installation configuration menu, the pkgsrc(7) framework for compiling packages can be obtained by retrieving the file ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.tar.gz. It is typically extracted into /usr/pkgsrc (though other locations work fine) with the commands:


           # cd /usr
           # tar -zxpf pkgsrc.tar.gz

    After extracting, see the doc/pkgsrc.txt file in the extraction directory (e.g., /usr/pkgsrc/doc/pkgsrc.txt) for more information.

  7. Misc

    - Edit /etc/mail/aliases to forward root mail to the right place. Don't forget to run newaliases(1) afterwards.

    - Edit /etc/rc.local to run any local daemons you use.

    - Many of the /etc files are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking


           # man 5 filename

    is likely to give you more information on these files.


Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The easiest way to upgrade to NetBSD 7.1.1 is with binaries, and that is the method documented here.

To do the upgrade, you must boot the install kernel using one of the methods described above. You must also have at least the base and kern binary distribution sets available. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place, you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, boot blocks, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.

The upgrade procedure is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning.

Fetching the binary sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure; refer to the installation part of the document for help. File systems are checked before unpacking the sets.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD 7.1.1 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. You will probably want to update the set of device nodes you have in /dev. If you've changed the contents of /dev by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if not, you can just cd into /dev, and run the command:

       # sh MAKEDEV all

sysinst will attempt to merge the settings stored in your /etc directory with the new version of NetBSD using the postinstall(8) utility. However, postinstall(8) is only able to deal with changes that are easily automated. It is recommended that you use the etcupdate(8) tool to merge any remaining configuration changes.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 7.1.1.

Note that sysinst will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default will be handled.

A number of things have been removed from the NetBSD 7.1.1 release. See the ``Components removed from NetBSD'' section near the beginning of this document for a list.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases

See the section below on upgrading from NetBSD 6.x as well.

The following users need to be created:

- _mdnsd
- _tests
- _tcpdump
- _tss

The following groups need to be created:

- _mdnsd
- _tests
- _tcpdump
- _tss

The implementation of SHA2-HMAC in KAME_IPSEC as used in NetBSD 5.0 and before did not comply with current standards. FAST_IPSEC does, with the result that old and new systems cannot communicate over IPSEC if one of the affected authentication algorithms (hmac_sha256, hmac_sha384, hmac_sha512) is used.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 6.x releases

The following user needs to be created:

- _rtadvd

The following groups need to be created:

- _gpio
- _rtadvd

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you installed the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

- intro(1),
- man(1),
- apropos(1),
- passwd(1), and
- passwd(5).

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for details.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details.

Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/

If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with NetBSD, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it. If you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

- The former members of UCB's Computer Systems Research Group, including (but not limited to):
Keith Bostic
Ralph Campbell
Mike Karels
Marshall Kirk McKusick

for their work on BSD systems, support, and encouragement.

- The Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. for hosting the NetBSD FTP, CVS, AnonCVS, mail, mail archive, GNATS, SUP, Rsync and WWW servers.

- The Internet Research Institute in Japan for hosting the server which runs the CVSweb interface to the NetBSD source tree.

- The Columbia University Computer Science Department for hosting the build cluster.

- The many organizations that provide NetBSD mirror sites.

- Without CVS, this project would be impossible to manage, so our hats go off to Brian Berliner, Jeff Polk, and the various other people who've had a hand in making CVS a useful tool.

- We list the individuals and organizations that have made donations or loans of hardware and/or money, to support NetBSD development, and deserve credit for it at http://www.NetBSD.org/donations/ (If you're not on that list and should be, tell us! We probably were not able to get in touch with you, to verify that you wanted to be listed.)

- Finally, we thank all of the people who've put sweat and tears into developing NetBSD since its inception in January, 1993. (Obviously, there are a lot more people who deserve thanks here. If you're one of them, and would like to be mentioned, tell us!)

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud acorn32
Matt Thomasmatt alpha
Ignatios Souvatzisis amiga
Ignatios Souvatzisis amigappc
Noriyuki Sodasoda arc
Julian Colemanjdc atari
Matthias Drochnerdrochner cesfic
Erik Berlscyber cobalt
Antti Kanteepooka emips
Simon Burgesimonb evbmips
Steve Woodfordscw evbppc
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui hp300
Nick Hudsonskrll hppa
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe hpcsh
Matt Thomasmatt ibmnws
Gavan Fantomgavan iyonix
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe landisk
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui luna68k
Scott Reynoldsscottr mac68k
Michael Lorenzmacallan macppc
Steve Woodfordscw mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw mvmeppc
Matt Thomasmatt netwinder
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui news68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled ofppc
Simon Burgesimonb pmax
Tim Rightnourgarbled prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled rs6000
Tohru Nishimuranisimura sandpoint
Simon Burgesimonb sbmips
Sřren Jřrvangsoren sgimips
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh sh3
Martin Husemannmartin sparc64
Anders Magnussonragge vax
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks x68k
Manuel Bouyerbouyer xen

The NetBSD 7.1.1 Release Engineering team:
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Alistair G. Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Hĺvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Zafer Aydoganzafer@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Marc Balmermbalmer@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Taylor R. Campbellriastradh@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Aleksey Cheusovcheusov@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Thomas Corttcort@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Masatake Daimonpho@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Steven Drakesbd@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Elad Efratelad@NetBSD.org
Hĺvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Hisashi Todd Fujinakahtodd@NetBSD.org
Makoto Fujiwaramef@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Oliver V. Gouldver@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Yorick Hardyyhardy@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Kenichi Hashimotohkenken@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
Emile Heitorimil@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Lars Heidiekerpara@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
Wen Hepingwen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Daniel Horeckimorr@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Darran Huntdarran@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Ĺstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Sřren Jřrvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
KIYOHARA Takashikiyohara@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
Mateusz Kocielskishm@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Joseph Koshyjkoshy@NetBSD.org
Radoslaw Kujawarkujawa@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Guillaume Lasmayousgls@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Sergio Lopezslp@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Palle Lyckegaardpalle@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
Anthony Mallettho@NetBSD.org
John Marinomarino@NetBSD.org
Roy Marplesroy@NetBSD.org
Pedro Martellettopedro@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Jean-Yves Migeonjym@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
Ryosuke Moroszptvlfn@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Constantine A. Murenincnst@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Tuomo Mäkinentjam@NetBSD.org
Zoltán Arnold NAGYzoltan@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Alexander Nasonovalnsn@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Ryo ONODERAryoon@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Ryota Ozakiozaki-r@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Fredrik Pettaipettai@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Pierre Proncherykhorben@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jens Rehsacksno@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Rumkorumko@NetBSD.org
Jukka Ruohonenjruoho@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Ryo Shimizuryo@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Nathanial Slossnat@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Matthew Sporledermspo@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Adrian Steinmannast@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Hiroki Suenagahsuenaga@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Grégoire Sutregsutre@NetBSD.org
Sergey Svishchevshattered@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Hasso Tepperhasso@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Tamás Tóthttoth@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Maxime Villardmaxv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Mark Weinemweinem@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Sebastian Wiedenrothwiedi@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Ysmalstacktic@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Tim Zingelmantez@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
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This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
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This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.
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This product includes software developed by Kazuhisa Shimizu.
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This product includes software developed by the Urbana-Champaign Independent Media Center.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
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This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.
This product includes software developed by Kyma Systems.
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material.

In the following statement, "This software" refers to the parallel port driver:

This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.

Some files have the following copyright:

Mach Operating System
Copyright (c) 1991,1990,1989 Carnegie Mellon University
All Rights Reserved.

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and its documentation is hereby granted, provided that both the copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software, derivative works or modified versions, and any portions thereof, and that both notices appear in supporting documentation.

CARNEGIE MELLON ALLOWS FREE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE IN ITS CONDITION. CARNEGIE MELLON DISCLAIMS ANY LIABILITY OF ANY KIND FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Carnegie Mellon requests users of this software to return to
Software Distribution Coordinator or Software.Distribution@CS.CMU.EDU
School of Computer Science
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

any improvements or extensions that they make and grant Carnegie the rights to redistribute these changes.

Some files have the following copyright:

Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Carnegie-Mellon University.
All rights reserved.

Author: Chris G. Demetriou

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and its documentation is hereby granted, provided that both the copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software, derivative works or modified versions, and any portions thereof, and that both notices appear in supporting documentation.
CARNEGIE MELLON ALLOWS FREE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE IN ITS "AS IS" CONDITION. CARNEGIE MELLON DISCLAIMS ANY LIABILITY OF ANY KIND FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Carnegie Mellon requests users of this software to return to
Software Distribution Coordinator or Software.Distribution@CS.CMU.EDU
School of Computer Science
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

any improvements or extensions that they make and grant Carnegie the rights to redistribute these changes.

Some files have the following copyright:

Copyright 1996 The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University. All Rights Reserved.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies. Stanford University makes no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.

The End

Contributions

The following people have made contributions of various sorts specifically for the Macintosh port (in alphabetical order):