About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 Releases............2 Security Advisory Fixes.....................................3 Other Security Fixes........................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................3 The NetBSD Foundation..........................................3 Sources of NetBSD..............................................3 NetBSD 6.1.4 Release Contents..................................3 NetBSD/sun2 subdirectory structure..........................4 Binary distribution sets....................................5 NetBSD/sun2 System Requirements and Supported Devices..........6 Supported hardware..........................................6 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media...................6 Creating boot/install tapes.................................7 Boot/Install from NFS server................................7 Install/Upgrade from CD-ROM.................................8 Install/Upgrade via FTP.....................................8 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation..................8 Installing the NetBSD System...................................8 Installing from tape........................................9 Installing from NFS.........................................9 Installing from SunOS......................................10 Booting the Miniroot.......................................11 Miniroot install program...................................11 Post installation steps.......................................12 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................14 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............15 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases.......15 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......16 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................16 Administrivia.................................................17 Thanks go to..................................................17 We are........................................................18 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................24 The End.......................................................29
This document describes the installation procedure for
6.1.4 on the
It is available in four different formats titled
is one of
less(1)pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.
You are reading the HTML version.
The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on 57 different system architectures (ports) across 15 distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 6.1.4 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. Please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)
NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.
NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.
NetBSD 6.1.4 is the fourth critical/security update of the NetBSD 6.1 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical for security or stability reasons.
The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-6.1.4: http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.1.4/CHANGES-6.1.4 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 6.1.4 release tree. An abbreviated list is as follows:
Advisories prior to NetBSD-SA2014-003 do not affect NetBSD 6.1.4: http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/patches-6.1.4.html.
Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation
that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the
Project and owns the trademark of the word
It supports the design, development, and adoption of
More information on the
Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at:
The root directory of the NetBSD 6.1.4 release is organized as follows:
In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 6.1.4 has a binary distribution.
The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
They contain the complete sources to the system.
The source distribution sets are as follows:
All the above source sets are located in the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files.
Except for the
set, which is traditionally unpacked into
all sets may be unpacked into
with the command:
# cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz
In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:
The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.
sun2subdirectory of the distribution:
.../NetBSD-6.1.4/sun2/. It contains the following files and directories:
.morefile contains underlined text using the
more(1)conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
sun2/binary/setssubdirectory of the NetBSD 6.1.4 distribution tree, and are as follows:
/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
/etcand in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
/netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. NetBSD/sun2 currently does not ship with an X server or X clients.
The sun2 binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files
named with the extension
The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally
well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that
method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore
the files are extracted
below the current directory.
Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e.
replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the
command from the root directory (
) of your system.
There is a collection of Sun2 kernels in the
subdirectory of the
The one named
contain a root file system image and should only be used for the
The others are included for convenience.
(Most people will want to use
Please note that these kernels are simply gzipped and are not tar archives.
NetBSD/sun2 6.1.4 runs on Multibus Sun2 machines, including:
The minimal configuration requires 4 MB of RAM and about 130 MB of disk
To install the entire system requires much more disk space.
To compile the system, more RAM is recommended.
Good performance requires 7 MB of RAM.
A good rule of thumb is to have a swap partition twice the size of the
amount of RAM in your machine.
You will probably want to compile your own kernel, as
is large and bulky to accommodate all people.
Note that the sun2 installation procedure uses a miniroot image which is placed into the swap area of the disk. The swap partition must be at least as large as the miniroot image (12 MB).
If it's not on this list, there is no support for it in this release.
Installation is supported from several media types, including:
The procedure for transferring the distribution sets onto installation media depends on the type of media. Instructions for each type of media are given below.
In order to create installation media, you will need all the files in the directory
The boot tape is created as follows:
# cd .../NetBSD-6.1.4/sun2/installation/tapeimage
# sh MakeBootTape /dev/nrst0
The install tape is created as follows:
# cd .../NetBSD-6.1.4/sun2/installation/tapeimage
# sh MakeInstallTape /dev/nrst0
If the tapes do not work as expected, you may need to explicitly
set the EOF mark at the end of each tape segment.
It may also be necessary to use the
this argument is incompatible with the
Consult the tape-related manual pages on the system where the tapes are
created for more details.
If you are using a
system as the boot-server, have a look at
manual page for guidelines on how to proceed with this.
If the server runs another operating system, consult the
documentation that came with it (i.e.
When instructed to boot over the network, your sun2 expects to be
able to download first and second stage bootstrap programs via
the Network Disk protocol.
program will attempt to serve a second-stage bootstrap file using
a name derived from the machine's recently acquired IP
address and an extension which corresponds to the
(It may be handy to have a hexadecimal
calculator for this next step.)
The filename prefix is created by converting the machine's assigned
IP address into hexadecimal, most-significant octet first,
using uppercase characters for the non-decimal (A-F) digits.
The filename suffix used by all sun2 machines is
For example, a sun2 which has been assigned IP address 126.96.36.199
will be served a second-stage bootstrap file named
Normally, this file
is a symbolic link to the
program, which should
be located in a place where the
daemon can find it.
program may be found in the
directory of this distribution.
The netboot program will query a bootparamd server to find the
NFS server address and path name for its root, and then load a
kernel from that location.
The server should have a copy of the
kernel in the root area for your client, hard-linked
under the names
(no other files are needed in the client root) and
on the server
should have an entry for your client and its root directory.
The client will need access to the miniroot image, which can be
provided using NFS or remote shell.
If you will be installing
on several clients, it may be useful
to know that you can use a single NFS root for all the clients as long
as they only use the
There will be no conflict
between clients because the RAM-disk kernel will not use the NFS root.
No swap file is needed; the RAM-disk kernel does not use that either.
binary/kernel(which you get via FTP). Once you have booted
netbsd-RAMDISK(the RAM-disk kernel) and loaded the miniroot, you can load any of the distribution sets over the net using FTP. The install program in the miniroot automates the work required to configure the network interface and transfer the files.
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all
you make sure that there's some FTP site from which you can retrieve
distribution when you're about to install or upgrade.
You need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on
a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing
you need to know the numeric IP address of the
router closest to the
Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the
Sun2 machines usually need little or no preparation before installing NetBSD, other than the usual, well advised precaution of backing up all data on any attached storage devices.
You will need to know the SCSI target ID of the drive on which you will install NetBSD.
sd2, target 2 is
Installing NetBSD is a relatively complex process, but if you have this document in hand it should not be too difficult.
There are several ways to install NetBSD onto your disk. If your machine has a tape drive the easiest way is Installing from tape (details below). If your machine is on a network with a suitable NFS server, then Installing from NFS is the next best method. Otherwise, if you have another Sun machine running SunOS you can initialize the disk on that machine and then move the disk. (Installing from SunOS is not recommended.)
The first example will use the tape on SCSI target 4, where the
second will use SCSI target 5.
is the monitor prompt.
After the tape loads, you should see many lines of configuration messages, and then the following `welcome' screen:
Welcome to the NetBSD/sun2 RAMDISK root!
This environment is designed to do only three things: 1: Partition your disk (use the command: edlabel /dev/rsd0c) 2: Copy a miniroot image into the swap partition (/dev/rsd0b) 3: Reboot (using the swap partition, i.e. /dev/sd?b).
Note that the sun2 firmware cannot boot from a partition located more than 1 GB from the beginning of the disk, so the swap partition should be completely below the 1 GB boundary.
Copying the miniroot can be done several ways, allowing the source of the miniroot image to be on any of these: boot tape, NFS server, TFTP server, rsh server
The easiest is loading from tape, which is done as follows: mt -f /dev/nrst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nrst0 fsf 2 dd if=/dev/nrst0 of=/dev/rsd0b bs=32k conv=sync (For help with other methods, please see the install notes.)
To reboot using the swap partition, first use "halt", then at the PROM monitor prompt use a command like: b sd(,,1) -s
To view this message again, type: cat /.welcome
Copy the miniroot as described in the welcome message, and reboot from that just installed miniroot. See the section entitled Booting the miniroot for details.
First, at the Sun PROM monitor prompt, enter a boot command using the network interface as the boot device. If your machine has Intel Ethernet, this is ie, and if it has 3Com Ethernet, this is ec. Examples:
>b ie() -s
>b ec() -s
After the boot program loads the RAMDISK kernel, you should see the welcome screen as shown in the Installing from tape section above. You must configure the network interface before you can use any network resources. For example the command:
ssh> ifconfig ie0 inet 188.8.131.52 up
will bring up the network interface with that address. The next step is to copy the miniroot from your server. This can be done using either NFS or remote shell. (In the examples that follow, the server has IP address 184.108.40.206.) You may then need to add a default route if the server is on a different subnet:
ssh> route add default 220.127.116.11 1
You can look at the route table using:
ssh> route show
Now mount the NFS file system containing the miniroot image:
ssh> mount -o rdonly,-r=1024 18.104.22.168:/server/path /mnt
The procedure is simpler and much faster if you have space for an expanded (not compressed) copy of the miniroot image. In that case:
ssh> dd if=/mnt/miniroot.fs of=/dev/rsd0b bs=8k
Otherwise, you will need to use
to expand the miniroot image while copying.
This is tricky because the
(small shell) does not handle
you first run the reader in the background with its input set
and then run the other program in the foreground with its output to
The result looks like this:
ssh> run -bg dd if=/dev/pipe of=/dev/rsd0b obs=8k
ssh> run -o /dev/pipe zcat /mnt/install/miniroot.fs.gz
To load the miniroot using rsh to the server, you would use a pair of commands similar to the above. Here is another example:
ssh> run -b dd if=/dev/pipe of=/dev/rsd0b obs=8k
ssh> run -o /dev/pipe rsh 22.214.171.124 zcat miniroot.fs.gz
Note that decompression on a sun2 is extremely slow, be prepared to wait. For this reason, expanding the miniroot image on the NFS server is highly recommended.
Once the miniroot has been copied using one of the above methods, you reboot from that just installed miniroot. See the section entitled Booting the miniroot for details.
First, boot SunOS and place the miniroot file onto the hard drive. If you do not have gzip for SunOS, you will need to decompress the image elsewhere before you can use it.
Next, bring SunOS down to single user mode to insure that nothing will be using the swap space on your drive. To be extra safe, reboot the machine into single-user mode rather than using the shutdown command.
Now copy the miniroot image onto your swap device (here
with the command
gzip -dc miniroot.fs.gz | dd of=/dev/rsd0b obs=32k
or if you have already decompressed the miniroot
dd if=miniroot.fs of=/dev/rsd0b obs=32k
Finally, reboot the machine and instruct the PROM to boot from the swap device as described in the next section.
If the miniroot was installed on partition
of the disk with
SCSI target ID=0 then the PROM boot command would be:
>b sd(0,0,1) -s
With SCSI target ID=2, the PROM is:
>b sd(0,10,1) -s
The numbers in parentheses above are:
The miniroot's install program will:
foo.bar.org. If, during the process of configuring the network interfaces, you make a mistake, you will be able to re-configure that interface by simply selecting it for configuration again.
First-time installation on a system through a method other than the
installation program is possible, but strongly discouraged.
Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.
If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of
the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the
and with the root file system
When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press
to get to a
If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with
(or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type)
You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key
to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
# stty erase '^h'
# stty erase '^?'
At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the
You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
# /sbin/mount -u -w /
Change to the
directory and take a look at the
Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set
so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can
Default values for the various programs can be found in
where some in-line documentation may be found.
More complete documentation can be found in
When you have finished editing
at the prompt to
leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.
Other values that may need to be set in
for a networked environment are
You may also need to add an
along the lines of
or, if you have
To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an
file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run
for more information.
Instead of manually configuring network and naming service,
DHCP can be used by setting
Other files in
that may require modification or setting up include
After reboot, you can log in as
at the login prompt.
Unless you've set a password in
is no initial password.
You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the
account with good passwords.
By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via
One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different
user that belongs to group
to become root.
command to add accounts to your system.
if you want to edit the password database.
If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend.
sun2/6.1.4/Allsubdir. If you installed
pkgin(1)in the sysinst post-installation configuration menu, you can use it to automatically install binary packages over the network. Assuming that
/usr/pkg/etc/pkgin/repositories.confis correctly configured, you can install them with the following commands:
# pkgin install tcsh # pkgin install bash # pkgin install perl # pkgin install apache # pkgin install kde # pkgin install firefox ...
The above commands will install the Tenex-csh and Bourne Again shells, the Perl programming language, Apache web server, KDE desktop environment and the Firefox web browser as well as all the packages they depend on.
pkgsrc(7)framework for compiling packages can be obtained by retrieving the file ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.tar.gz. It is typically extracted into
/usr/pkgsrc(though other locations work fine) with the commands:
# cd /usr
# tar -zxpf pkgsrc.tar.gz
After extracting, see the
file in the extraction directory (e.g.,
for more information.
/etc/mail/aliasesto forward root mail to the right place. Don't forget to run
/etc/postfix/main.cffile will almost definitely need to be adjusted. If you prefer a different MTA, then install it using pkgsrc or by hand and adjust
/etc/rc.localto run any local daemons you use.
/etcfiles are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking
# man 5 filename
is likely to give you more information on these files.
It is possible to easily upgrade your existing NetBSD/sun2 system using the upgrade program in the miniroot. If you wish to upgrade your system by this method, simply select the upgrade option once the miniroot has booted. The upgrade program with then guide you through the procedure. The upgrade program will:
Using the miniroot's upgrade program is the preferred method of upgrading your system.
However, it is possible to upgrade your system manually. To do this, follow the following procedure:
# /sbin/fsck -pf
# /sbin/mount -a -t nonfs
/usr/shareon an NFS server, you will want to mount those file systems as well. To do this, you will need to enable the network:
# sh /etc/rc.d/network start
the) base binary set:
# cd /
# pax -zrvpe -f Ar /path/to/base.tgz
# cd /usr/mdec
# cp -p ./ufsboot /mnt/ufsboot
#sync ; sleep 1 ; sync
# /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rsd0a bootxx /ufsboot
# cd /
# pax -zrvpe -f path_to_set
Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 6.1.4.
Note that sysinst will automatically invoke
The pthread libraries from previous versions of
require that the
be set to
This affects the following environments:
The 5.0 kernel defaults to
which covers the first case.
However, please note that a full installation of 5.0
(either from scratch or through an upgrade)
to 1 during the boot process.
This means that for the last two cases, you will have to manually set
using either the
command or through
The implementation of SHA2-HMAC in KAME_IPSEC as used in NetBSD-5 and before did not comply to current standards. FAST_IPSEC does, with the result that old and new systems cannot communicate over IPSEC, if one of the affected authentication algorithms (hmac_sha256, hmac_sha384, hmac_sha512) is used.
The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix
Issues fixed by postinstall:
/etcneed upgrading. These include:
The following issues need to be resolved manually:
mount(8)command now requires the nosuid and nodev options to be explicitly specified. Previously, these options were automatically enforced even if they were not explicitly specified.
Documentation is available if you installed the manual
(documentation) are denoted by
Some examples of this are
The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.
The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets  around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter
# man passwd
to read the documentation for
To view the documentation for
# man 5 passwd
If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter
# apropos subject-word
where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.
If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for a web interface.
There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.
To report bugs, use the
command shipped with
and fill in as much information about the problem as you can.
Good bug reports include lots of details.
Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html
There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/
If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).
If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.
As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.
Keith Bostic Ralph Campbell Mike Karels Marshall Kirk McKusick
for their work on BSD systems, support, and encouragement.
(in alphabetical order)
|The NetBSD core group:|
|The portmasters (and their ports):|
|Valeriy E. Ushakov||uwe||hpcsh|
|Valeriy E. Ushakov||uwe||landisk|
|The NetBSD 6.1.4 Release Engineering team:|
|Alistair G. Crooks||agc@NetBSD.org|
|Jeremy C. Reed||reed@NetBSD.org|
|Robert V. Baron||rvb@NetBSD.org|
|D'Arcy J.M. Cain||darcy@NetBSD.org|
|Taylor R. Campbell||riastradh@NetBSD.org|
|Chris G. Demetriou||cgd@NetBSD.org|
|Tracy Di Marco White||gendalia@NetBSD.org|
|Jaime A Fournier||ober@NetBSD.org|
|Michael van Elst||mlelstv@NetBSD.org|
|Jason R. Fink||jrf@NetBSD.org|
|Matt J. Fleming||mjf@NetBSD.org|
|Liam J. Foy||liamjfoy@NetBSD.org|
|Simon J. Gerraty||sjg@NetBSD.org|
|Oliver V. Gould||ver@NetBSD.org|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org|
|Charles M. Hannum||mycroft@NetBSD.org|
|Michael L. Hitch||mhitch@NetBSD.org|
|David A. Holland||dholland@NetBSD.org|
|Christian E. Hopps||chopps@NetBSD.org|
|Love Hörnquist Åstrand||lha@NetBSD.org|
|Lonhyn T. Jasinskyj||lonhyn@NetBSD.org|
|Min Sik Kim||minskim@NetBSD.org|
|Jonathan A. Kollasch||jakllsch@NetBSD.org|
|Johnny C. Lam||jlam@NetBSD.org|
|Martin J. Laubach||mjl@NetBSD.org|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org|
|Cherry G. Mathew||cherry@NetBSD.org|
|Jared D. McNeill||jmcneill@NetBSD.org|
|Neil J. McRae||neil@NetBSD.org|
|Julio M. Merino Vidal||jmmv@NetBSD.org|
|Constantine A. Murenin||cnst@NetBSD.org|
|Zoltán Arnold NAGY||zoltan@NetBSD.org|
|Jeremy C. Reed||reed@NetBSD.org|
|Tyler R. Retzlaff||rtr@NetBSD.org|
|Blair J. Sadewitz||bjs@NetBSD.org|
|Karl Schilke (rAT)||rat@NetBSD.org|
|Thor Lancelot Simon||tls@NetBSD.org|
|T K Spindler||dogcow@NetBSD.org|
|Valeriy E. Ushakov||uwe@NetBSD.org|
|Mike M. Volokhov||mishka@NetBSD.org|
All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:
NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions
of the system documentation.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in
NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for
Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),
The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.
In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original
IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group
Standard is the referee document.
The original Standard can be obtained online at
This notice shall appear on any product containing this material
NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.
The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.
This notice shall appear on any product containing this material